Environment Design for Entertainment Media – Some Considerations
This session was delivered as part of the Creative Futures – Skillsets programme to both Yr 1 Animation and Games Design students. The Session follows on from a session looking at the wider role of production design and the Production Designer (and related or comparable roles) in the development of Entertainment Media projects.
We set a Mini-Brief, i.e. : “Adaptation/Production Design Pitch”
You are to consider a new idea for a game* or animation. This game is to be based on an existing concept from another media (i.e. A TV Show, Film, Book, even an Opera if that’s your bag) but not an existing computer game or animation if that is your subject area, this existing media does not have to slavishly be represented, but instead perhaps simply help provide a structure in the form of basic plot and character types for your concept.
In the wide world of entertainment media the development or re-imagining of existing ideas has been a staple of the production houses method of developing new properties.
Hamlet + Animated Anthropomorphism = The Lion King
Hamlet + Gritty Urban Setting = Sons of Anarchy
The Tempest = Classic Fifties SciFi = The Forbidden Planet
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes + Medical Slant + Contemporary Urban Setting = House
“Adaptation Project” Part 2, Looking at ENVIRONMENTS:
Basically, for the purpose of these sessions, if you are an animator, by environment we mean any space your character(s) moves through, inhabits, or that is visualised on screen during the animation; whilst as a games designer, any space we (the player) are able to look around, point-and-click in, or more traditionally the space where your avatar or character runs around on your behalf… Interiors, Exteriors, Architecture, Landscapes & Natural Topography, Platforms, Top-down maps, Isometric Cityscapes etc.
Throughout the history of film and animation, styles and schools of thought on the representation of environments to enhance narrative have changed, evolved and developed.
So today we have a wealth of stylistic approaches available to us as influences, whether imposed by the specific media (See the animation above, ADAGIO using folded paper by Russian Animator, Garri Bardin) – Clay-mation and Stop-motion animations having evolved very very distinct looks, particularly when looking across a range of cultures.
Whether more traditional, drawn animations range from Disney style animations to the Eastern European (folk) styles, to the accepted face of Anime, and the current hybrids, slick digital 3D/2D hybrid animations, to traditional paper drawn works, and animations in almost every style available to the single frame Graphic Designer, Illustrator and Fine Artist.
You may want to spend some time going through a range of animated films from a range of creatives, perhaps even some outside of your current comfort zone, historically, socio-politically, culturally and geographically. Try this list of animations in different styles with links.
You may also wish to use illustration, graphic design or fine art as a starting point, there are several compendiums of illustration and magazine collections that are published every year in which you will find a vast range of styles and aesthetics.
GAMES –<p><a href=”http://vimeo.com/1264514″>Rolando for iPhone – Teaser trailer</a> from <a href=”http://vimeo.com/simonoliveruk”>Simon Oliver</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>
We know there are different styles of games as far as the players view is concerned; isometric landscapes and city/streetscapes; travelling aerial views ; room by room point and click, 2D level games or rolling character games (i.e. those designed for i-phone style interfaces like LocoRoco or Rolando – above); fully immersive 3D environments, BioShock, Halo or Enslaved (below);
…or hybrids like the Gabriel Knight series that mix 2D, FMV and 3D.
<p><a href=”http://vimeo.com/7336360″>SUPER HYPERCUBE</a> from <a href=”http://vimeo.com/polytroncorporation”>POLYTRON</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>
Even experimental games environments like the cutting edge Virtual 3D (and seemingly completely abstract) games like Super Hypercube (see video above) have considered the look and design of the environment you the gamer moves through.
Phil Fish, co-creator of the game, on being asked “Should the screen look that grainy?”.
“Yeah, there is a grain to it. Also some vignetting around the edges. We went for a look that is – hyper modern but retro – Which the game really is, given that it (the game) uses anaglyphic stereoscopy.
ITS SAFE TO SAY THAT: No matter the style of game; someone has considered the overall visual feel of the product, usually taking as his or her starting point the over-arching concept of the game, rather than just leaving it to the medium of choice to wholly dictate the finished style.
RESEARCH & EARLY CONCEPTUALISATION
Okay… So what to consider? What within the overall concept of your game or animation is going to impact upon and influence your design decision-making when it comes to the development of your environments (and later design elements, Props and characters etc)?
Well, I suppose understanding how your Chosen Media for the final product may affect your product,
…and perhaps coming to understand the distinct differences between medium and genre.
And then what Genre?… Horror? Fantasy? Humourous? Sci-fi, Film Noir, Urban?
Is it set in a fantasy world of your own imagining? If so what were the characteristics of the civilisations that have shaped that world? Could those traits be reflected in their architecture just as we have seen in the various civilisations of our own world?
Consider the afterlife obsessive Egyptians with their Mega-Mausoleum building, the warring, expansionist Europeans of the middle ages with their castles and military hierarchies, the British Victorians with their faith in building, engineering, prefabricated iron structures and steam power.
You can help make your fictional environments that much more believable or authentic by trying to understand (by which I mean creating, designing, drawing and writing for yourself) a little more about what has shaped them, whether you are looking at the fictional cultural and fictional historical influences on the architecture of your imaginary cities, or the fictional geological upheavals and fictional weather conditions that could have shaped your fantasy world’s natural landscapes amongst which your cultures may have decided to live.
Has war impacted in the look of both of the above? What clues could there be to the events that have taken place there, of the people that have passed through there. What is the function of the building you are designing? What kind of neighbourhood is it? Uptown? Ghetto? What kinds of people inhabit it?
Is it an residential building? A barbershop?
Trust me. It is far easier to design something specific like a barber-shop than a “generic” building. So taking a little bit of time to think about seemingly irrelevant details like the uses of the various buildings in your street scene, or the economic history of your (ultimately fictional) city block, it may well save you time later on. So, you have your overall concept and now you are looking at designing a scene… try starting with a basic aerial plan of the scene. Just a rough thumbnail to identify the layout and what elements you may have to design.
If it is an interior you are looking at, what kind of person uses the room you are visualising? What fingerprints to their personality have they left there?
If you are struggling for inspiration, get up and get outside (or simply take a closer look at the building you are already in). USE YOUR DAY-BOOKS, make notes on how the light glints off that modern structure, get a thumbnail sketch showing the shrubs and small trees growing out of that abandoned building; the un-boarded, broken windows in that run-down street; graffiti; air-con units; unique window details; the exposed industrial materials on that warehouse. Look at the way those roof planes interlock showing how the buildings have slowly piled up on each other.
Though currently existing in a contemporary setting, elements of these type of details can be used regardless of whether your environment is a modern urban setting, a futuristic cityscape or a Tolkien-esqe fantasy world.
In animation these environments can be used to enhance the narrative, with key locations almost becoming “characters” in themselves.
Of course games design has its own unique characteristics to consider. Especially in fully immersive 3D games, where low polygon counts of game assets are crucial, as is “iteration” (or the use of repeated objects or assets in order to improve a games performance). But at the concept stage discussed above it is probably not worth completely “cramping your style”, allowing yourself a freer hand. You can always “value engineer” you concepts in the later design development stages.
Try working up your own mini-briefs that test your ability to rapidly develop ideas.
ONE LAST THING…
During your design phase you will produce a number of drawings/visuals (some of which may be using 3D tools) …It is worth considering before your start each piece, “What is the purpose of this visual?”
What, and to who, are your trying to COMMUNICATE, through this piece of work.
Are you trying to get a feel for the atmosphere of a scene? Or are you trying to show detail or layout of an area to aid in the building of that setting for the 3D model-makers?
These two ideas can occasionally be seen together in the same visual, but for the most part you will find them separated.
Images taken from The Art of Final Fantasy IX
The images above both show designs for the same game, yet they have very different properties and qualities due to their function within the design process. The images on the left with their aerial view, clean lines, clearly showing each object and prop and its place within the scene is what we might call a “design”. While the image on the right, with its preoccupation with mood, atmosphere and the character’s/player’s POV (point of view) is a “visualisation”.
THE NEXT SESSION:
“Adaptation Project” Part 2, OBJECTS, PROPS, VEHICLES & WEAPONS etc.
What sort of objects or props could there be in your environment… Could it be something your player character needs (a weapon, a vehicle) or just something that adds to the feels of the design? Boxes and crates? Furniture?
If you want a guide to 3D games design/entertainment media concept art in one great book, you can’t do much better than the “The Art Of Final Fantasy IX” from Brady Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7440-0050-5. It has some great layouts covering characters (inc’ character comparison sheets), props, objects, weapons, flying machines, creatures and a whole stack of environments, as both designs and mood visuals that works almost as a “how to…” reference book. Another great book for this kind of work (though not a great film) is “The Art Of Judge Dredd The Movie” from Boxtree Publishing, 1995. ISBN 0-7522-0666-4. You should be able to pick this up second hand for very little, it is full of great concept art covering everything from furniture through to costume designs and interior and exterior sets. It also has some good examples of storyboarding.
Finally, don’t forget to pick up one of the various periodicals occasionally, even if it is just to flick through in Tesco’s without actually buying it… “Edge” magazine has some excellent in depth articles, and January’s edition of “360 Gamer” mag’ had that great little article on Mini Ninjas, which flagged up a lot of points we are discussing in these sessions (I’ll make sure there is a copy of the article scanned and saved somewhere in your dept, in fact it might be worth making an arch lever file that you can add inspirational visual and written resource to yourselves).